Soil degradation processes from pollution

The Republic of Moldova is endowed with fertile soils. Soil pollution is a major concern since no effective treatment method exists to restore the natural qualities of the soils. Polluted soil can only be rehabilitated under the long-lasting influence of natural factors.A major source of anthropic impact on soils is the application of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture. At the same time, manure and livestock excreta often are transported to communal dump sites, where they are mixed with other wastes, or are left in ravines, along the local roads and in other unauthorized places. Instead of improving the soil productivity the nutrients find their way to and pollute the surface and ground waters.At the same time, pollution of the soils in the vicinity of former pesticide storehouses remains a problem. More than 200 storehouses have been dismantled during the last years and some of the remaining are in a poor condition, unfenced, unguarded, without doors and windows, thus being sources of chemical pollution. Moldovan soils are prone to erosion and this is how agrichemicals can travel to the water environment thus endangering water life and limiting water uses. Investigations found HCH and DDT residuals in bottom sediments from several reservoirs and lakes as well as the main rivers, Nistru and Prut (concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 15.8 ppb). The concentration of PCBs in the topsoil collected beneath the capacitors battery at the Vulcănesti substation reached a level of 7100 ppm which is exceeding the MAC by five orders of magnitude (!). With no exception, allowable concentrations of PCBs in soil were exceeded also on the territory of other investigated substations, with peaks registered at the Briceni substation (2545 ppm) and the Orhei substation (1959 ppm). The degradation of soils implies the reduction or total loss of their biologic or economic productivity caused by anthropic or natural processes.

Publication date: 17.05.2021
Author name: 
Popov Leonid